Women Empowerment in English
Why do we talk about empowerment of women rather than male empowerment? Why do women need empowerment and why not men? About 50% of the world’s population are women, yet why is this large part of the society needed empowerment? Women are not even a minority that they need special help. On the basis of the facts, it is a proven argument that women are better in every task than men. So the question arises here is why are we discussing the topic ‘Women’s empowerment’?
Why do we need female empowerment?
The need for empowerment has been done for the liberation of women by the exploitation and discrimination of women for centuries; The voice of women is pressed in every way. Women are the target of different types of violence and discriminatory behaviors by men throughout the world. India is also not insulated.
India is a complex country. For centuries, different types of customs, traditions, and practices have been developed. These customs and traditions, some good and some evil, have become a part of the collective consciousness of our society. We worship women as goddesses; We also attach great importance to our mothers, daughters, sisters, wives and other female relatives or friends but at the same time, Indian is famous for the bad behavior done by women outside our homes and outside our homes.
In Indian society, people belonging to almost all types of religious beliefs live. Women have been given special positions in every religion, and every religion teaches us to treat women with respect and dignity. But in today’s modern society, the thinking of the society has developed so much that both the physical and mental types of practices and practices have become ideal for women. For example, Sati, dowry practice, curtain practice, embryo killing, burning of wife, sexual violence, sexual harassment at workplace, domestic violence and other different types of discrimination; All such actions involve physical and mental elements.
There are many reasons behind such behavior against women, but the most important is the complex male superiority and patriarchal system of society. Although various constitutional and legal rights have been created to eliminate discrimination against these practices and women, much more is yet to be done in reality. Many self-help groups and NGOs are working in this direction; Women are also breaking social barriers and achieving great heights in all aspects of political, social and economic forms, but still, the society has not fully accepted women as being equal to men. Crime or atrocities against women are still increasing. To deal with them, the mindset of old people in the society has to be changed through social plans and sensitization programs.
Therefore, the thinking of women empowerment not only focuses on raising the strength and skills of women from their sad condition but also educates them in relation to women and equals women with a sense of respect and duty. Emphasizes the need. In this article, we will try to describe and understand the concept of female empowerment in India in all its dimensions.
What is female empowerment?
Generally speaking, empowerment of women means giving women the freedom to decide their life or creating such capacities in them so that they can establish their rightful place in society.
According to the United Nations, there are mainly five reasons for the empowerment of women:
- Feeling of self-worth in women
- Women’s rights and freedom to determine them
- Women’s right to access equal opportunities and resources of all kinds
- Women have the right to regulate and control their own lives inside and outside the home
- Women’s ability to contribute to creating more social and economic systems.
In this way, women empowerment is nothing more than accepting the basic human rights of women and accepting the equality of men.
Women empowerment in India
From ancient to modern times, the status of women has not been equally social, political and financial. There have been changes in the circumstances of women many times. In ancient India, women had status as men; He was very educated in the early Vedic period. In our ancient texts there are also examples of female saints like Friendly but after the arrival of Manu’s famous treatise, Manusmriti, the women became under the subordinate status of men.
All kinds of discriminatory practices have started from child marriage, devadasi system, city bride, Sati practice etc. The socio-political rights of women were reduced and this made them completely dependent on male members of the family. The right to education, the right to work and the right to decide for themselves were stripped from them. During the medieval period, the condition of women with the advent of Muslim rulers in India has also worsened. There was something similar during the British era, but the British rule brought western ideas alongside the country.
Some enlightened Indians like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, who were influenced by the modern concept of independence, equality, and justice, questioned the prevailing discrimination practices against women. Through the constant efforts of the British, the British were forced to end Sati. Similarly, many other social reformers like Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Swami Vivekananda, Acharya Vinoba Bhave etc worked for the upliftment of women in India. For example, the widow remarriage of 1856 legislation was a result of the revolt of the laws of widows, the movement of Lord Chandra Vidyasagar.
Indian National Congress supported the First Women’s Delegation, which in 1917 met the Secretary of State to demand the political rights of women. In 1929, the Child Marriage Prevention Act was passed due to the efforts of Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Mahatma Gandhi also urged the people to boycott child marriage with the request to marry the child windows to the youth.
Almost all the leaders of the struggle for independence movement believed that women should be given equal status in independent India and all forms of discrimination should be stopped and in order to be able to include such provisions in the Constitution of India, it is most appropriate It was believed that it would help in removing old exploitation practices and traditions, and would also make provisions that would give women socially, Will help in economic and political empowerment.
Constitution of India and women’s empowerment
Constitutionalist of India and our Father of the Nation were determined to provide equal rights to both women and men. The Constitution of India is one of the best-supporting documents in the world. It specifically provides for the protection of gender equality. Various articles of the Constitution protect women’s rights equal to social, political and financial.
To preserve the human rights of women, the preamble of the Constitution, fundamental rights, DSPP and other constitutional provisions provide many types of special safeguards.
The preamble of the Constitution of India gives justice, social, economic and political assurances. Apart from this, it also provides the status of the person, equal opportunities, and dignity of dignity. Thus, according to the preamble of the Constitution, both men and women are considered equal.
The policy of empowerment of women in the fundamental rights contained in our constitution has been well developed. for example:
- Article 14 ensures the rights of equality to women.
- Article 15 (1) specifically prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender.
- Article 15 (3) gives the state the right to take positive action in favor of women.
- Article 16 provides equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters related to employment or appointment to any office.
These rights are fundamental to the fundamental rights court and the government is obliged to obey it.
Directive Principles of State Policy:
The guiding principles of state policy include important provisions regarding empowerment of women, and it is the duty of the government to implement these principles on making laws or formulating any policy. Although they are not justified in the court but are necessary for governance. some of them are:
- Article 39 (A) implies that men and women in the state have to direct their policy towards protection for equality of adequate resources of livelihood.
- Article 39 (D) means both men and women from equal pay for equal work.
- Article 42 provides for the provision of state work and protection of maternal conditions and maternity relief.
Fundamental duties have been included in Part IV-A of the Constitution. It also includes duty related to women’s rights:
Article 51 (A) (e) expects the citizens of the country to promote harmony and equitable brotherhood among all the people of India and to abandon abusive practices for women’s dignity.
Other constitutional provisions:
Through the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment in 1993, women have been given a very important political authority, which is a milestone in the direction of women’s empowerment in India. With this amendment, 33.33 percent reservation was given to women in different levels of elections ie Panchayat, block and municipal elections in the local administration.
In this way, it can be seen that these constitutional provisions are very powerful for women and it is the duty to implement these principles in making the law while making the state’s policy decisions.Women Empowerment
Specific legislation for women empowerment in India
Here is a list of specific laws which were implemented by Parliament to fulfill the constitutional obligation of women empowerment:
- Equal wages act, 1976
- Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
- Unethical Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956
- Maternity Benefit Act, 1961
- End of Pregnancy Act, 1971
- Sati Commission (Prevention) Act, 1987
- Prohibition of child marriage act, 2006
- Pre-conception and pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention) Act, 1994
- Sexual Harassment of Women (Prevention and Protection) Act, 2013 at Workplace
- There are many above and many other laws that not only women have specific legal rights.
There are many above and above other laws that not only provide specific legal rights to women but also provide them with a sense of security and empowerment.
International commitments for Indian empowerment
India is associated with various international conventions and treaties which are committed to safeguarding equal rights of women.
The most important of these is the Conference on the Elimination of All Kinds of Discrimination Against Women Approved in India (CDAW) in 1993.
Other important international resources for women empowerment are: Mexico Plan of Action (1975), Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies (1985), Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995) and the results adopted by the UNGA session, gender equality for the 21st century “Beijing Declaration” to implement development, peace and further action All these have been fully supported by India for proper follow-up action.
In spite of all these national and international commitments, laws and policies, there has been no satisfactory improvement in the situation of women. Various problems related to women are still present in the society. Exploitation of women is increasing, dowry practices are still prevailing, domestic violence is practiced against women, sexual harassment at workplace and other heinous sexual offenses against women are increasing.
Although there has been the significant improvement in the economic and social status of women, this change appears only in metros or urban areas. The situation has not improved in semi-urban areas and villages. This is the inequality, the lack of education and job opportunities and negative thinking towards women of society is the main reason not to accept girls’ education in the 21st century.
Government policies and schemes for women empowerment
Whatever improvements and empowerment of women have happened, they are especially due to their own efforts and struggles, although there are government schemes to help them in their efforts.
In the year 2001, the Government of India launched a national policy for empowerment of women. The specific objectives of the policy are as follows:
To create an environment through positive economic and social policies for the full development of women, they have to explore their full potential.
Creating the environment for women to enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms on the basis of men in all political, economic, social, cultural and civil sectors.
Providing equal access to women participation and decision making in the social, political and economic life of the nation.
Providing equal opportunities to women for health care, quality education, careers and professional guidance at all levels, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and safety, social security and public life etc.
Strengthen the legal system for the purpose of eliminating all forms of discrimination against women.
Changing social behavior and community practices through active participation and participation of both men and women
In the development process, mainstream in terms of gender.
Elimination of all forms of violence against discrimination, women, and girls.
Building and strengthening partnerships with civil society, especially women organizations.
The Ministry of Women and Child Development is the nodal agency for all matters related to the welfare of women, development, and empowerment. It has developed plans and programs for its benefits. These schemes are spread over a very wide area such as shelter, security, legal aid, justice information, maternal health, food, nutrition etc. as well as fulfill their financial need through skill development, education and economic development.Women Empowerment
The various schemes of the Ministry such as Autonomy, Self, Step, and Swavalamban are capable of financial empowerment. Women hostels and crèches provide support services. Healthy and short stay homes provide security and rehabilitation to women in difficult circumstances. The Ministry supports autonomous bodies like National Commission, Central Social Welfare Board, and National Women’s Fund, which works for the welfare and development of women. Through the skill development, education and access to credit and marketing, women are also one of the areas where women’s special attention is in the economic life.
Conclusions and suggestions:
In conclusion, it can be said that women in India are trying to find their place through their own unarmed efforts and with the help of constitutional and other legal provisions and various welfare schemes of the government. It is pertinent to say that women’s participation in socio-political activities in the public sector, their involvement in the private sector and the highest decision-making bodies is improving day by day.
We have to educate and educate the members of the society about the problems of women and there is a need to create a sense of solidarity and equality among them so that they stop their discriminatory practices towards a weaker section.Women Empowerment
In order to do this, different NGOs and government enlightened citizens are required to make efforts. First of all, efforts should be made from our homes, where we should empower the women members of our family by providing equal opportunities for education, health, nutrition and decision making without any discrimination.
India can become a powerful nation only when it actually gives power to its women.